International Flights to Brazil
The capital city is Brasilia, but international flights to Brazil are invariably to either Sao Paulo or nearby Rio de Janeiro. From both, but especially Sao Paulo, there are extensive same day connections to dozens of other destinations in Brazil.
From North America, there are flights to Brazil (Rio and Sao Paulo) with Continental, Delta, American Airlines, United Airlines and Air Canada, in addition to the Brazilian carriers Tam and Varig. Tam also offers flights from Miami to Manaus as well as Salvador.
From Europe, almost every major airline flies to Brazil. European airlines that fly to both Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro include British Airways (from London), Air France (from Paris), Iberia (from Madrid and sometimes Barcelona) and Tap Air Portugal (from Lisbon or sometimes Oporto). Both Rio and Sao Paulo are also served by flights with Brazilian carriers Varig and Tam, both of whom fly to various destinations in Europe. Tam also have a new routing between Natal and Paris. In addition, Sao Paulo is also served by flights with Alitalia (from Milan and Rome), KLM (from Amsterdam) and Swiss Air (from Zurich). TAP Air Portugual also offer flights from Lisbon to various beach destinations on Brazil's North East coast such as Fortaleza, Natal, Recife and Salvador. These beach destinations on Brazil's northern coast are also served by various charter airlines, but I won't go into details (as charter flights change routings the whole time, so any information I post will rapidly become out of date).
Brazil is very well connected to numerous destinations and capital cities throughout Latin America. I'll only mention the less commonly known but useful routings for travellers: from Manaus there are flights to both Panama City (Copa) and to Havana (with Cubana I believe) in Cuba; from Florianopolis in Southern Brazil one can fly to both Buenos Aires and Santiago (Lan); and from Iguassu there are flights to Buenos Aires. There are also flights from Sao Paulo to Cape town in South Africa (with South Africa Airlines I believe).
The most extensive networks of flights from Brazil to elsewhere in Latin America are offered by Tam, though both Gol and Varig also fly some popular routes.
Tam International Route map
Domestic Flights in Brazil - Major Airlines
A country as huge as Brazil invariably has an equally large number of domestic airlines offering excellent value internal flights. Both Tam and Gol have airpasses that cover either just Brazil or South America as a whole - see the articles on the Tam Airpass and Gol Airpass for advice. Tam and Gol are the top two airlines offering cheap flights within Brazil, but there are plenty more in addition to these two most commonly used carriers.
Tam is Brazil's top national carrier, and have an extremely extensive network of internal flights. Remember than there are 2 airports at both Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro - an international and a domestic airport in each case.
Tam Brazil Route Map
Varig almost went bust a couple of years ago, but having been bought by Gol, they survive as one of Brazil's national airlines, albeit with a much reduced network of flights. Like Tam, they also have a couple of airpasses.
Varig Route Map
Gol is a well established Brazilian airline, and one of the countries first low cost carriers. Gol flights are invariably very cheap. Note their international flights to Lima, Panama City, Santiago, Santa Cruz, Buenos Aires, Cordoba and Mendoza.
Gol Route Map
Trip is another of Brazil's major low cost airlines, with an extensive networks of flights throughout the country. Of particular interest to travellers will be their flights to Fernando de Noronha from both Recife and Natal, in addition to the extensive flights in the Amazon region. Trip don't accept credit cards unless they're Brazilian cards, but you can book in advance and pay at the airport.
Trip Route Map
Domestic Flights in Brazil - Smaller Airlines
As a traveller, it's unlikely that you will need to use any of the other airlines listed below, but on occasions the following airlines might be the only options, or they might have the cheapest airfares.
Azul is the newest airline to appear (in December 2008). Various destinations are covered including Salvador, Fortaleza, Recife and Porto Alegre, and there are plans to soon include places such as Rio and Manaus.
OceanAir's hub is in Rio de Janeiro, and they have an extensive network of flights that cover mainly Eastern Brazil. Coastal cities they fly to include Fortaleza, Maceio, Recife, Aracaju, Salvador and Porto Seguro. In Southern Brazil they fly to Sao Paulo, Porto Alegre, Curitiba and Foz do Iguazu, plus a range of other destinations.
Ocean Air Route Map
Rico are based in Manaus, and serve numerous destinations in Brazil's Amazon region, including Tabatinga (the border town with Peru and Leticia in Colombia), Tefe (Brazil's top rainforest tour destination) and Belem.
Rico Route Map
Webjet are based in Rio and offer cheap flights (this is a low cost carrrier) to major destinations throughout Brazil including Fortaleza, Ilheus, Natal, Salvador and Recife. Other destinations include Belo Horizonte, Brasilia, Curitiba, Maceio, Porto Alegre and Porto Seguro.
Passaredo Transportes Aéreos, based in Sao Paulo, offer flights to a dozen relatively major destinations in Brazil including Uberlandia, Goiana, Brasilia, Cuiaba, Barreiras, Salvador, Vitoria, Porto Alegre, Franca and Rio.
NHT are based in Porto Alegre and cover a range of destinations in Southern Brazil including Curitiba and Florianopolis.
NHT Route Map
Team are based in Rio and have flights to destinations in South Brazil including Paraty, Vitoria, Buzios and Angra dos Reis.
TAF's primary use for international travellers are the flights from Cayenne to Belem in North Brazil (Cayenne is capital of French Guiana). Other destinations on this route include Macapa, Sao Luiz and Fortaleza.
Litorânea are a domestic airline based in Sao Luiz and serve the beautiful but remote region between Sao Luiz and Fortaleza in Northern Brazil. They offers flights to Barreirinhas (for access to Lencios National Park), Parnaiba, Camocim, Teresina and Fortaleza.
Litoranea Route Map
Platinum Air are a small airline who offer services between Rio, Sao Paulo, Natal and Fortaleza.
Meta Linhas Aéreas are based in Boa Vista in Northern Brazil. They offer flights to the Guyanas including to Paramaribo (Suriname) and Georgetown (Guyana), in addition to other destinations in North Brazil such as Belem and Santarem.
Cruiser Linhas Aereas are based in Curitiba and serve 10 destinations in the states of Mato Grosso, Parana and Rondonia, including Cuiaba and Santarem.
Air Minas are based in Belo Horizonte and serve regional destinations in Minas Gerais and Mato Grosso such as Uberlandia, Uberaba, Ipatinga and Gov. Valadaresas.
Puma Air are based in Belem and fly to regions in the Amazon such as Altamira and Monte Dourado.
Pantanal is based in Sao Paulo and serves a few obscure regional destinations in the Pantanal and West of Sao Paulo.
Abaete are an airline based in Salvador, and has a few flight schedules serving Bahia and North East Brazil.